Saturday, 2 June 2018

Cardiovascular Diseases - IHD

The heart disease that is the consequence of an inflammation is called inflammatory heart disease. There could be many causes of inflammation, Inflammatory heart disease may occur due to an infection that develops from a bacteria or virus. It could also develop due to inflammation due to some internal milieu. Inflammation of heart is caused by known infectious agents, viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites, and by toxic materials from the environment, water, food, air, toxic gases, smoke, and pollution, or by an unknown origin. Myocarditis is induced by infection of heart muscle by virus like sarcoidosis and immune diseases.

A heart has following three layers
  • Pericardium – Outer sac of the heart
  • Myocardium – Inner muscle core of the heart
  • Endocardium – Innermost lining of the heart
Depending upon the layer of heart involved it could be pericarditis, myocarditis or endocarditis.


Myocarditis describes any inflammation that occurs within the heart muscle. It is induced by viral infections, diseases like sarcoidosis, and immune disorders. It is not unusual for the disease to be completely asymptomatic. Pain in the chest is the most likely sign of myocarditis. The disease may progress into degeneration of the heart muscle and cause heart failure. If treated early a fair portion of individuals achieve total recovery. Others may progress to chronic heart failure. Rarely a fulminant heart failure may develop.


Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the fluid sac that envelopes the heart.
The cause of pericarditis
  • Infection
  • Malignancy
  • Metabolic disorders like hypothyroidism and uremia
  • Connective tissue disease
  • Drug reaction
Pericarditis presents as chest pain or angina pectoris that is generally expressed as a cutting, intense pain that migrates from the chest area to the shoulder blades, back, and neck that become significantly worse on inhalation and becomes better by leaning forward. Analgesics and the treatment of the offending factor is the accepted line of treatment.


Endocarditis is inflammation of the endocardium or inner lining of the heart. It usually affects individuals who have an artificial heart valve in place or have suffered degeneration of a heart valve.

Groups most at risk
  •  Individuals who currently have an artificial valve(s).
  •  Congenital birth defect
  •  Any previous injury to the heart
  •  Intravenous drug users
The main treatments are antibiotics and surgery where damage is significantly compromising.

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