Friday, 20 July 2018

Thoughts impact on Health

In many cases, our thoughts have a great impact on our health. There is also a famous saying which says, "health is wealth". Our health is well when we maintain it at the right way. More the positive thoughts around us more energetic and fresh we feel. More the negative thoughts around us the lower we feel which increases depression and stress. These two factors, in turn, increase our BloodPressure which causes Hypertension

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Wednesday, 18 July 2018

SC - Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology

The cardiovascular anatomy and physiology:
Function of the heart:

  • Managing blood supply - The blood supplied according to the metabolic need by knowing the heart rate variations. 
  • Producing blood pressure - For the blood to flow through the blood vessels the heart muscle contracts which releases the pressure required. 
  • Securing one-way blood flow - The valves help in one-way blood flow through the blood vessels. 
  • Transmitting blood - Heart separates the pulmonary and systemic circulations that ensure oxygenated blood flow through the tissues. 
Anatomy of the heart: 
The different parts that make up the heart and also the functioning of it in the right way are
  • Heart Structure and Functions
  • Layers of the heart - Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
  • Chambers of the heart - receiving chambers (atria), discharging chambers (ventricles), septum
  • Associated great vessels - superior and inferior vena cava, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, aorta. 
  • Heart Valves - atrioventricular valves, tricuspid valve, bicuspid valve, semi-lunar valve
  • Cardiac circulation vessels - coronary arteries, cardiac veins
  • Blood vessels - arteries, arterioles, veins
  • Tunics - tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa
  • Major arteries of the system circulation - arterial branches of the ascending aorta, arterial branches of the aortic arch, arterial branches of the thoracic aorta, arterial branches of the abdominal aorta
  • Major veins of the system circulation - veins draining into the superior vena cava, veins draining into the inferior vena cava
Physiology of the heart: 
  • Intrinsic conduction system of the heart
  • The pathway of the conduction system
  • Cardiac cycles and Heart sounds
  • Cardiac output
  • Physiology of circulation
  • Cardiovascular vital signs
  • Blood circulation through the heart
  • Capillary exchange of gases and nutrients

Tuesday, 17 July 2018

Music and CHD

The effect of Music therapy is said to have an impact on adults and Infants who have heart diseases but, there are no explores in this field. Thus, recently a study was carried on to check the effect of Music therapy on infants who were affected with CHD and were in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU). 
Five infants in the CICU received music therapy entrainment 3–5 times per week for up to 3 weeks. Sessions took place both prior to and after the infant’s surgical cardiac repair. Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and oxygen saturations were recorded every 15 seconds for 20 minutes prior to the intervention (baseline), during the 20-minute music therapy entrainment (intervention), and for 20 minutes after the intervention (return to baseline). Comparisons of baseline to intervention measures were based on means, standard deviations, and derivatives of the signal.


Four of 5 infants experienced a decrease in average heart and respiratory rates as well as improvement in the derivative of the heart rate signal. Greater improvements were found when infants were located in the open bay and were receiving sedatives or narcotics.


The study was carried out to show an initial evidence on the effectiveness of Music therapy against CHD in infants. This was, just started as a baseline of the Music therapy. 


Monday, 16 July 2018

Must eat foods for Hypertensive people

Hypertensive people when they include lots of fresh juices and fruits it improves health. They become stress-free and healthy. Fruits reduce the blood pressure.  Taking the fruit diet with the consultation of the doctor will improve the person's health. 

Friday, 13 July 2018

Head and Heart - Create Wisdom?

The key purpose of the research is to show that "Wise reasoning is not exclusively the function of the mind and cognitive ability. The study extends to show how the heart's function impacts the mind.

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Saturday, 7 July 2018

Sports Cardiology

In recent years the growth of athletes and sports person’s has been increased more than double the rate. In general, we all know that the physical exercise reduces the risk of heart diseases and blood pressure. The desire of sports is raised in children and adult with heart disease. But, at the same situation vigorous physical exercise increases the risk of CV outcomes in competitive athletes and high outcome people (CAHOP). These CAHOP people are always at an intense risk of adverse CV outcomes and also inherited CV Diseases. A multidisciplinary team of trained coaches, trainers, physical therapists, primary care sports medicine physician and orthopedic surgeon functions with CAHOP people. In recent days the situation arose for a demand of CV specialist in the team. These members must have the essential skills necessary to practice sports cardiology. By seeing the demand a separate council has been started at American College of Cardiology – Sports and Exercise Council. In just a short span of 2 years, this council has reached up to 4000 members which show the increased interest of people in the emerging risks and innovations. This CV attack is also termed as sports-related sudden cardiac death. Commonly, sudden cardiac death is triggered by a malignant tachyarrhythmia such as ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia degenerating into VF. There is typically an underlying substrate for arrhythmia trigger, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathychannelopathiesarrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, or coronary congenital abnormalities, among others.

Friday, 6 July 2018

Diabetes and Hypertension Awareness

Diabetes mellitus and hypertension are common diseases that coexist at a greater frequency than chance alone would predict. Hypertension in the diabetic individual markedly increases the risk and accelerates the course of cardiac disease, peripheral vascular disease, stroke, retinopathy, and nephropathy. Our understanding of the factors that markedly increase the frequency of hypertension in the diabetic individual remains incomplete. Diabetic nephropathy is an important factor involved in the development of hypertension in diabetics, particularly type I, patients. However, the etiology of hypertension in the majority of diabetic patients cannot be explained by underlying renal disease and remains "essential" in nature. The hallmark of hypertension in type I and type II diabetics appears to be increased peripheral vascular resistance. Increased exchangeable sodium may also play a role in the pathogenesis of blood pressure in diabetics. There is increasing evidence that insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia may play a key role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in both subtle and overt abnormalities of carbohydrate metabolism. Population studies suggest that elevated insulin levels, which often occurs in type II diabetes mellitus, is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic individuals include abnormalities of lipid metabolism, platelet function, and clotting factors. The goal of antihypertensive therapy in the patient with coexistent diabetes is to reduce the inordinate cardiovascular risk as well as lowering blood pressure.

Thursday, 5 July 2018

Hypertension and Kidney Diseases

Chronic kidney diseases – arising from inborn or acquired renal disorders – are one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. Renal parenchymatous hypertension accompanying bilateral or unilateral kidney diseases is more prevalent than renovascular hypertension. The prevalence and severity of hypertension are influenced by age, weight, type of renal affliction, and depth of renal dysfunction. In multifactorial pathogenesis, sodium retention plays the crucial role together with dysbalance concerning effects of different vasoactive substances; however, unequivocal distinction between volume- and renin-type hypertension is difficult. The treatment of renal hypertension includes appropriate lifestyle changes, pharmacotherapy, hemoelimination methods and radiological or urological invasive procedures. In chronic kidney diseases with increased albuminuria or proteinuria, ACE inhibitors and AT1-blockers are preferred. Combination of several antihypertensives is often required to achieve the target blood pressure. Increased blood pressure represents not only the manifestation of chronic kidney diseases but also an important factor concerning the renal and cardiovascular risk.

Wednesday, 4 July 2018

Hypertension in patients with Comorbidities

Hypertensive patients tend to develop many other diseases in their body. Comorbidities included the combination of two or more diseases other than hypertension. These diseases include heart diseaseskidney diseasesdiabetes mellitus and blood vessel diseases. Inclusive of all the major effects of hypertension is cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. The patients with diabetes and hypertension are insulin resistant. The complication of hypertension is mainly categorized under two as macrovascular and microvascular. There are various organizations working on the medications to be followed for hypertensive patients to reduce the effects of other diseases. These organizations work on statistics in order to identify the patient's adherence to the medications. There are certain guidelines provided by National Institute for Healthcare and Excellence to be followed for the comorbidities patients. 
  • Track 1-1 Combination of Diseases
  • Track 2-2 Patient Adherence and Comorbidity
  • Track 3-3 Study of Hypertensive Prescribing Practices
  • Track 4-4 Guidelines by National Institute for Health Care and Excellence
  • Track 5-5 Cardiovascular Medicine

Thursday, 28 June 2018

Primary Aldosteronism

Primary aldosteronism (al-DOS-tuh-ro-niz-um) is a type of hormonal disorder that leads to high blood pressure. Your adrenal glands produce a number of essential hormones. One of these is aldosterone, which balances sodium and potassium in your blood.
In primary aldosteronism, your adrenal glands produce too much aldosterone, causing you to lose potassium and retain sodium. The excess sodium, in turn, holds on to water, increasing your blood volume and blood pressure. Diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism are important because people with this form of high blood pressure have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. Also, the high blood pressure associated with primary aldosteronism may be curable. Options for people with primary aldosteronism include medications, lifestyle modifications, and surgery.


The main signs of primary aldosteronism are:
  • Moderate to severe high blood pressure
  • High blood pressure that takes several medications to control (resistant hypertension)
  • High blood pressure along with a low potassium level (hypokalemia)


Primary aldosteronism can lead to high blood pressure and low potassium levels. These complications, in turn, can lead to other problems.

Problems related to high blood pressure

Persistently elevated blood pressure can lead to problems with your heart and kidneys, including:
  • Heart attack
  • Heart failure
  • Left ventricular hypertrophy — enlargement of the muscle that makes up the wall of the left ventricle, one of your heart's pumping chambers
  • Stroke
  • Kidney disease or kidney failure
  • Premature death

High blood pressure caused by primary aldosteronism carries a higher risk of cardiovascular complications than do other types of high blood pressure. This excess risk is due to the high aldosterone levels, which can cause heart and blood vessel damage independent of complications related to high blood pressure.

Problems related to low potassium levels

Some, but not all, people with primary aldosteronism have low potassium levels (hypokalemia). Mild hypokalemia may not cause any symptoms, but very low levels of potassium can lead to:
  • Weakness
  • Cardiac arrhythmias
  • Muscle cramps
  • Excess thirst or urination

Wednesday, 27 June 2018


Aldosteronism is a hormonal disorder that leads to hypertension. The excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone disturbs the balance of sodium, potassium, and water in the blood. The production of excess secretion of aldosterone in the adrenal gland causes the loss of potassium and retaining of sodium alone. The excess sodium takes in water which increases blood volume and blood pressure. This can be cured by taking proper medications, change of lifestyles and surgery when required. The decrease in potassium level leads to weakness in the body, excess secretion of the urine and also muscle cramps. The important cause for aldosteronism is Conn’s syndrome. In children and young adults, there is a type of primary aldosteronism called glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism which causes high blood pressure. It is confirmed as aldosteronism if the High blood pressure is associated with low potassium levels in the screening.  
  • Track 1-1 Cause and Occurrence of Aldosteronism
  • Track 2-2 Signs and Symptoms
  • Track 3-3 Types and Classification
  • Track 4-4 Treatment Aids

Tuesday, 19 June 2018

TOD - Brain Diseases

Hypertension is a circulatory disease. Many patients with high blood pressure develop coronary artery disease or heart failure, and many die as a result. But all parts of the body depend on the circulation, and many organs suffer from the impact of untreated hypertension. One of the organs at greatest risk is the brain.

Damage to your brain

Just like your heart, your brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to work properly and survive. But high blood pressure can cause several problems, including:

Transient ischemic attack (TIA):

Sometimes called a ministroke, a transient ischemic (is-KEE-mik) attack is a brief, temporary disruption of blood supply to your brain. It's often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — both of which can arise from high blood pressure. A transient ischemic attack is often a warning that you're at risk of a full-blown stroke.


A stroke occurs when part of your brain is deprived of oxygen and nutrients, causing brain cells to die. Uncontrolled high blood pressure can lead to stroke by damaging and weakening your brain's blood vessels, causing them to narrow, rupture or leak. High blood pressure can also cause blood clots to form in the arteries leading to your brain, blocking blood flow and potentially causing a stroke.


Dementia is a brain disease resulting in problems with thinking, speaking, reasoning, memory, vision, and movement. There are a number of causes of dementia. One cause, vascular dementia, can result from narrowing and blockage of the arteries that supply blood to the brain. It can also result from strokes caused by an interruption of blood flow to the brain. In either case, high blood pressure may be the culprit.

Mild cognitive impairment: 

Mild cognitive impairment is a transition stage between the changes in understanding and memory that come with aging and the more serious problems caused by Alzheimer's disease. Like dementia, it can result from blocked blood flow to the brain when high blood pressure damages arteries.

Monday, 18 June 2018

TOD - Renal Hypertension

Renal Hypertension is also called renovascular hypertension is elevated blood pressure caused by Kidney Diseases. It can usually be controlled by Blood Pressure Drugs. Some people with Renal Hypertension can be controlled by angioplasty, stenting or surgery on the blood vessels of the Kidney.


  • Renal Artery Stenosis
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia


No particular symptom for Renal Hypertension. Thus, the doctor suspects Renal Hypertension if he has elevated blood pressure. Elevated Blood Pressure symptoms include:

  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Blurry or double vision
  • Bloody (pink-colored) urine
  • Nosebleed


If the condition is too serious then treatment methods like the follows becomes must: